Z7ro's bovine ubiquitin from puzzle 1382.

112: Bovine is a revisiting puzzle, originally presented as Puzzle 112: Bovine in 2008.

The protein in this puzzle is a ubiquitin. Ubiquitin is a very common or "ubiquitous" protein, found in animals and plants (eukaryotes). Despite the name of the puzzle, ubiquitin is not limited to members of the cow family (Bovidae). The name "bovine" (or more properly, "bovid"), might be a clue about the version of the protein found in the puzzle.

Ubiquitin attaches to other proteins, and performs functions such as marking a protein for destruction by a cell's proteasome.

The puzzle protein has 70 segments with the sequence:


Ubiquitin has been widely studied, so there are hundreds of entries in the Protein Data Bank that exactly match the sequence shown above. In many cases, the PDB entry shows ubiquitin in a complex with another molecule.

The following PDB entry shows two ubiquitins (a dimer), and specifically mentions Bos taurus (a "bovine") as the source organism:

  • 1AAR (chains A,B; offset 0)

The puzzle protein does not form disulfide bridges.

This puzzle does not have any ligands.

This puzzle has a single chain.

See players' solutions from previous visits this puzzle:

Complete series of revisits with top scores:

puzzle closed top solo score top solo top evo score top evo top group score top group comments
112: Bovine
112: Bovine 12/10/08 10,044 xiando 10,069 Mike Cassidy 10,069 Void Crushers ubiquitin
862: Revisiting Puzzle 112: Bovine 03/26/14 9,171 auntdeen 9,174 Galaxie 9,174 Anthropic Dreams
1161: Revisiting Puzzle 112: Bovine 12/02/15 9,245 Bruno Kestemont 9,246 mirp 9,246 Go Science
1382: Revisiting Puzzle 112: Bovine 06/01/17 9,243 bertro 9,247 LociOiling 9,247 Beta Folders
1645: Revisiting Puzzle 112: Bovine 03/13/19 10,690 Bruno Kestemont 10,691 LociOiling 10,691 Beta Folders
1827: Revisiting Puzzle 112: Bovine 04/24/20 10,681 LociOiling 10,682 Angus 10,682 Beta Folders
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